Changdeokgung Palace Complex
Changdeokgung Palace is a Joseon palace located at the foot of Eungbong, the left peak of Mt. Bukak. Changdeokgung Palace, which was built in 1405 (Taejong 5) to the east as a palace of Gyeongbokgung Palace, was used for a different purpose from the neighboring Changgyeonggung Palace, but they formed a single palace station, and in the Joseon Dynasty, these two palaces were called'Brothers' Palace and called'donggwang'. In 1592 (Seonjo 25), all palaces were destroyed during the Imjin War, and rebuilt during the Gwanghae-gun period. It is also the palace where kings lived for the longest time among the palaces of Joseon.
While the main buildings of Gyeongbokgung Palace symbolize the king's authority in a straight line symmetrical left and right, Changdeokgung Palace represents the atypical formative beauty of Korean palace architecture by arranging the buildings according to the topography of the Eungbong. In addition, the patronage, well-known as Biwon, is the patronage of the royal family, where pavilions, ponds, and strange stones are harmonized in each district. Among the remaining Joseon palaces, Changdeokgung Palace, which has the best preserved original form, was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997 for its harmonious arrangement with nature and Korea's sentiment.
The main gate of Changdeokgung Palace with both scale and dignity.
Donhwamun, the main gate of Changdeokgung Palace, was built in 1412. At the time of its creation, Jongmyo was located in front of Changdeokgung Palace, and the entrance to the palace was erected on the southwest side of the palace. It is the largest of the palace gates as a two-story pavilion, and it has the dignity of the palace's main gate by placing a wide woldae in front of it.
In March 1411, six years after Changdeokgung was built, it was installed outside Jinseonmun. After that, despite numerous fires and wars, it has been preserved as it was at the time of its creation. It is the oldest existing stone bridge in the palace. Geumcheongyo Bridge is installed on Myeongdangsu, passing between Donhwamun and Jinseonmun in Changdeokgung Palace. Myeongdangsu, or Geumcheon, of Changdeokgung Palace flows from the north to the south and comes to the right of Donhwamun and goes out of the palace. In the waterside of the fishing mouth, 6-7 layers of granite stone were neatly stacked, and Geumcheon Bridge was installed here to enter the palace. Made it possible. The structure is based on the center of the river bottom and the foundation stone placed on the water's edge, in the form of two hongye, and the axis of the waterside serves as a buttress, and a jangdaeseok-shaped yoke stone is placed on the hongye. The upper surface of the bridge is bulging and curved, and the floor is divided into three spaces, and jangdaeseok is evenly laid out for each space, and at the edge of the bridge is a carved statue of Lee Juseok on it.
Injeongmun is the main gate of Injeongjeon, the central building of Changdeokgung Palace. Several kings of the Joseon Dynasty, including Hyojong, Hyeonjong, Sukjong, and Yeongjo, held an enthronement ceremony here and ascended to the throne. The building has 3 spaces in the front and 2 spaces in the side, and the roof is a paljak roof that has an eight-legged shape when viewed from the side. The horror, created by decorating the roof eaves, was decorated in the style of multi-pockets that are also placed between the pillars and the pillars. The ceiling inside the building is a lotus ceiling with the ceiling material clearly visible, and the Dancheong is the most simple.
Injeongjeon was the main hall of Changdeokgung, where important national ceremonies were held, such as the royal enthronement ceremony, the rituals of the servants, and the interviews with foreign envoys. In the front, the courtyard where rituals are held is spread out, and in the back, it leads to the retribution of Bukhansan Mountain.
Although the Yeonjinjeon Hall is apparently a two-story building, it is actually a full-story building with a gorgeous and high ceiling. The floor was originally made of clay, but it is now a floor. It was renovated in Western style in 1908 with lights, curtains, and glass windows. There were several government offices, such as the escort office and the Sangseowon, in the outer hall outside the gate.
It was built in 1405 (Taejong 5) with the establishment of Changdeokgung Palace, but was rebuilt by Park Ja-cheong in 1418 (Taejong 18). It will be restored the following year to reach the present.
Inside the Injeongjeon Hall, there is a king's dragon statue in front, and behind it is a wooden goggle and a folding screen called Ilwol Oakdo behind the goggles.
On the folding screen, there are the sun and the moon, meaning yin and yang, which again symbolize the king and queen. The five mountain peaks below it refer to the five mountains in the east, west, south, north, and center of Korea, meaning the country.
This also implies that the king governs all sides in the center and conducts politics according to the principles of yin and yang.
In addition, Western ornaments such as light bulbs and curtains, including glass windows, were installed. This means that various foreign cultures came in after diplomatic relations with foreign countries in the Korean language. Partial changes took place, such as the floor being turned into and a light bulb installed.
Used as the king's office
Pyeonjeon, the official office of the king's daily affairs with high-ranking officials, was built to the east of the Jeongjeongin-in Yeonjeongjeon, according to the terrain. Various meetings such as morning coordination meetings, business reports, and national government seminars were held every day here. At the time of its establishment, it was called Jogye-cheong, but in 1461 (Sejo 7) it was renamed to Seonjeongjeon, meaning ‘Politics should be given.’ Ingyeonggung Palace, which was at the foot of Mt. Inwang, was demolished in 1647 (25th year of Injo) after being burned down by fires such as the Imjin War and Injo Banjeong. The surrounding areas were used as secretarial and annexed rooms, but overall it was cramped. Currently, it is the only blue tile and building that remains in the palace.
It was also used as a wedding hall (a place to enshrine the gods of kings and queens who died before being enshrined in Jongmyo).
Where it was used as it changed from sedimentation to pyeonjeon
If Injeongjeon is the symbolic and leading palace hall of Changdeokgung Palace, then Heejeongdang is the actual central building where the king stayed the most. The original name was Sungmundang, but in 1496 (Yeonsan 2) it was renamed Heejeongdang. The original edition, Seonjeongjeon, was cramped and often used as a premarital, and Heejeongdang, which was a sedimentation, It took over the function of Pyeonjeon. Today's Heejeongdang is a reconstruction of Gangnyeongjeon, which was in Gyeongbokgung Palace, when it was restored in 1920 from what was destroyed in a fire in 1917.
The original Heejeongdang, depicted in Donggwangdo, was a small house built on several stone pillars, and there was a pond in the yard.
Today's Heejeongdang is completely different from this appearance, and it is also different from the original Gangnyeongjeon. The reconstructed interior of Heejeongdang is decorated in a Western style with parquet, carpet, glass windows, and chandeliers on the ceiling.
Daejojeon is the formal settlement of Changdeokgung Palace and is the living space of the queen. Originally, a number of annexed buildings were surrounded by Daejojeon Hall, and among them, Heung Bokheon held the last Eojeon Conference in 1910 and was the site of the tragedy in which Gyeongsulgukchi was decided.
Gyotaejeon, the settlement of Gyeongbokgung Palace, was rebuilt in 1920 after being burned down in 1917 and became the current Daejeon Hall. While doing this, it was reconstructed according to the situation of Changdeokgung Palace, and connected with a corridor and a haenggak so that the wings of the wings on both sides and the Gyeonghungak on the back can communicate with each other in the center of Daejeon Hall. It is almost the only part that shows the complex composition of the original palace well.
Like Heejeongdang, the interior was renovated in a Western style, and the last appearance of royal life is relatively well preserved.
King Heonjong, the 24th king of the Joseon Dynasty, welcomed Kim Jae-cheong's daughter as Gyeongbin. I put it. Nakseonjae was the study and Sarangchae of King Heonjong, Seokbokheon was Gyeongbin's residence, and Suggangjae was the house for Queen Sunwon (23rd Queen Soonjo), the great queen at the time. It is very unusual to have a new building in the palace for the concubine. Heonjong was usually frugal and was interested in advanced civilizations. Nakseonjae, where you can feel that aspect, has a simple appearance without dancheong, In Seok Bok-heon, Empress Soon Jeong-hyo, the rain of Sunjong, lived until 1966, and in Nakseon-jae, the non-existent woman of the Young King lived until 1989.
The palace office serving the king and the royal family
Most of the government offices were outside the palace, but the government offices specially built in the palace to assist the king in close proximity were called Gwolnaegaksa. In the western area of Injeongjeon, Yakbang, Okdang (Hongmungwan), Yemungwan, and Naegak (Gyujanggak), Bongmodang , Daeyujae , Yoojae, etc. Was in place. These are all guard offices that assist the king in close proximity, and many departments are densely formed, making it a maze-like complex. During the Japanese colonial period, Gyujanggak, Daeyujae, and Soyoujae changed functions into simple libraries, but when the collections were moved to the Kyungsung Imperial University library, all palace halls such as Gyujanggak and Bongmodang were demolished and turned into roads and lawns. The existing buildings were restored from 2000 to 2004.
History of Changdeokgung Palace Complex
Changdeokgung Palace is the second palace in Joseon, after Gyeongbokgung Palace in the 5th year of King Taejong (1405). In 1392, King Taejo Lee Seong-gye ascended to the throne at Suchanggung, a Goryeo palace in Gaegyeong, and founded Joseon. In the third year of reign (1394), he moved the capital to Hanyang, and the following year established Gyeongbokgung Palace as the royal palace of Joseon. However, immediately after the founding of the country, a conflict between the prince and the contributors over the succession to the throne caused the prince's trouble twice, and the position of Gyeongbokgung Palace was shaken.
Jeong Jong, who was advocated by Lee Bang-won, relocated the capital to Gaegyeong, saying that Hanyang's position was not good in the second year of reign (1400) in the midst of a power struggle. Afterwards, Taejong, who was conquered by Jeongjong, returned to Hanyang again in the 5th year of reign (1405). In 1408, Taejo died in this palace. In the 11th year of Taejong's 11th year (1411), after Jinseonmun and Geumcheongyo, and the following year, Donhwamun, followed by several palaces, Changdeokgung gradually took on the appearance of a palace.
Changdeokgung Palace was the longest residence of the king in Joseon history for over 500 years. Officially, the palace of Joseon was Gyeongbokgung, but from the early Joseon period, many kings avoided Gyeongbokgung, and Changdeokgung took over. In particular, Taejong was the place where his half-brother was killed for the throne, and Gyeongbokgung Palace, which was built by Jeong Jeong Do-jeon, was reluctant.
The status of Changdeokgung Palace was strengthened by the Imjin War. When the Imjin War broke out in 1592 in the 25th year of King Seonjo, and all palaces in Seoul were burned, preparations for reconstruction began in 38th year of King Seonjo (1605), and in October of the first year of Gwanghae-gun (1609), the main halls such as Yeonjeongjeon were almost restored. Whether the construction was not perfect, construction began again in February of the following year and was completed in September. Since then, successive kings mainly see politics at Changdeokgung Palace.
Most of the palaces were destroyed due to the Injo Banjeong, and rebuilt in 1647 in the 25th year of King Injo. Daebodan was established in December of the 30th year of King Sukjong (1704). Built. Soonjo's son, Hyo Myung-ja, built Uido-hap and Yeongyeong-dang to complete today's patronage, while Heonjong built Nakseonjae, Seokbokheon, and Sugangjae during his short reign.
In the late Joseon Dynasty, Western-style lamps and garages were also installed at Changdeokgung Palace with the introduction of Western culture. In 1907, during the period of the Korean Empire, Sunjong succeeded to this place after the throne and became an imperial palace.
During the Japanese colonial period, a road was created in front of Donhwamun, which divided Changdeokgung Palace and Jongmyo Shrine, and the palace was greatly damaged, including many buildings other than the main hall were torn down. From 1912, along with the sponsorship of Changdeokgung Palace, the center of Yeonjeongjeon and Nakseonjae were opened to the public along with Changgyeonggung. In 1917, core halls such as Daejojeon and Heejeongdang were destroyed, and in 1918 the governor-general of Joseon and Lee Wangjik demolished Gyotaejeon, Gangnyeongjeon, and the haenggak in front of them in 1918, and rebuilt and rebuilt them into Changdeokgung. In 1921, the Japanese colonial rule removed Daebodan and built the new Seonwonjeon Hall.
Even after liberation, Changdeokgung Palace was left unattended for a while, and private houses, schools, and large buildings were built around it. However, restoration work has been underway since the 1990s, and in 1997, it was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its harmony between its formative beauty and the surrounding environment.
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